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    Describes new features that are included in  
    Windows PowerShell 4.0. 


    Windows PowerShell 4.0 includes several significant features that 
    extend its use, improve its usability, and allow you to control and 
    manage Windows-based environments more easily and comprehensively. 
    Windows PowerShell 4.0 is backward-compatible. Cmdlets, providers, modules, 
    snap-ins, scripts, functions, and profiles that were designed for Windows 
    PowerShell 2.0 and Windows PowerShell 3.0 work in Windows PowerShell 4.0 
    without changes. 
    You can also read about changes to Windows PowerShell 4.0 in the Microsoft 
    TechNet topic, "What's New in Windows PowerShell 4.0." 


    Windows PowerShell 4.0 includes the following new features. 
    Windows PowerShell 
    -- Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a new 
       management system in Windows PowerShell that enables the deployment 
       and management of configuration data for software services, and the 
       environment in which these services run. For more information about 
       DSC, see about_Desired_State_Configuration, or "Get Started with  
       Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration" on the Microsoft 
       TechNet website. 
    -- Save-Help now lets you save help for modules that are installed 
       on remote computers. You can use Save-Help to download module  
       Help from an Internet-connected client (on which not all of the  
       modules for which you want help are necessarily installed), and then 
       copy the saved help to a remote shared folder, or a remote computer 
       that does not have Internet access. 
    -- The Windows PowerShell debugger has been enhanced to allow debugging 
       of Windows PowerShell workflows, as well as scripts that are running 
       on remote computers. Windows PowerShell workflows can now be debugged 
       at the script level from either the Windows PowerShell command line 
       or Windows PowerShell ISE. Windows PowerShell scripts, including script 
       workflows, can now be debugged over remote sessions. Remote debugging 
       sessions are preserved over Windows PowerShell remote sessions that are 
       disconnected and then later reconnected. 
    -- A RunNow parameter for Register-ScheduledJob and Set-ScheduledJob  
       eliminates the need to set an immediate start date and time for jobs 
       by using the Trigger parameter. 
    -- Invoke-RestMethod and Invoke-WebRequest now let you set all headers 
       by using the Headers parameter. Although this parameter has always 
       existed, it was one of several parameters for the web cmdlets that 
       resulted in exceptions or errors. 
    -- Get-Module has a new parameter, FullyQualifiedName, of the type 
       ModuleSpecification[]. The FullyQualifiedName parameter of Get-Module 
       now lets you specify a module by using the module's name, version, 
       and GUID.  
    -- The default execution policy setting on Windows Server 2012 R2 is 
       RemoteSigned. On Windows 8.1, there is no change in default setting. 
    -- Starting in Windows PowerShell 4.0, method invocation by using 
       dynamic method names is supported. You can use a variable to store a 
       method name, and then dynamically invoke the method by calling the 
    -- Asynchronous workflow jobs are no longer deleted when the time-out 
       period that is specified by the PSElapsedTimeoutSec workflow common 
       parameter has elapsed. 
    -- A new parameter, RepeatIndefinitely, has been added to the New-JobTrigger 
       and Set-JobTrigger cmdlets. This eliminates the necessity of specifying 
       a TimeSpan.MaxValue value for the RepetitionDuration parameter to run a 
       scheduled job repeatedly, for an indefinite period. 
    -- A Passthru parameter has been added to the Enable-JobTrigger and 
       Disable-JobTrigger cmdlets. The Passthru parameter displays any objects 
       that are created or modified by your command. 
    -- The parameter names for specifying a workgroup in the Add-Computer and 
       Remove-Computer cmdlets are now consistent. Both cmdlets now use the 
       parameter WorkgroupName. 
    -- A new common parameter, PipelineVariable, has been added. PipelineVariable 
       lets you save the results of a piped command (or part of a piped command) 
       as a variable that can be passed through the remainder of the pipeline. 
    -- Collection filtering by using a method syntax is now supported. This means 
       that you can now filter a collection of objects by using simplified syntax, 
       similar to that for Where() or Where-Object, formatted as a method call. The 
       following is an example: (Get-Process).where({$_.Name -match 'powershell'}) 
    -- The Get-Process cmdlet has a new switch parameter, IncludeUserName. 
    -- A new cmdlet, Get-FileHash, that gets information about file hashes, 
       has been added. 
    -- In Windows PowerShell 4.0, if a module uses the DefaultCommandPrefix 
       key in its manifest, or if the user imports a module with the Prefix 
       parameter, the ExportedCommands property of the module shows the commands 
       in the module with the prefix. When you run the commands by using the 
       module-qualified syntax, ModuleName\CommandName, the command names must 
       include the prefix. 
    -- The value of $PSVersionTable.PSVersion has been updated to 4.0. 
    -- Where() operator behavior has changed. Collection.Where('property –match name') 
       accepting a string expression in the format "Property –CompareOperator Value" 
       is no longer supported. However, the Where() operator accepts string expressions 
       in the format of a scriptblock; this is still supported. 
    Windows PowerShell Workflow 
    -- Support has been added for a new PipelineVariable common parameter in 
       the context of iterative pipelines, such as those used by System Center 
       Orchestrator; that is, pipelines that run commands simply left-to-right, 
       as opposed to interspersed running by using streaming. 
    -- Parameter binding has been significantly enhanced to work outside of tab  
       completion scenarios, such as with commands that do not exist in the 
       current runspace. 
    -- Support for custom container activities has been added to Windows 
       PowerShell Workflow. If an activity parameter is of the types Activity, 
       Activity[]--or is a generic collection of activities--and the user has 
       supplied a script block as an argument, then Windows PowerShell Workflow 
       converts the script block to XAML, as with normal Windows PowerShell 
       script-to-workflow compilation. 
    -- After a crash, Windows PowerShell Workflow automatically reconnects to 
       managed nodes. 
    -- You can now throttle Foreach -Parallel activity statements by using 
       the ThrottleLimit property. 
    -- The ErrorAction common parameter has a new valid value, "Suspend", 
       that is exclusively for workflows. 
    -- A workflow endpoint now automatically closes if there are no 
       active sessions, no in-progress jobs, and no pending jobs. This 
       feature conserves resources on the computer that is acting as the 
       workflow server, when the automatic closure conditions have been met. 
    Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) 
    -- Windows PowerShell ISE supports both Windows PowerShell Workflow 
       debugging and remote script debugging. 
    -- IntelliSense support has been added for Windows PowerShell Desired 
       State Configuration providers and configurations. 
    Windows PowerShell Web Services (Management OData IIS Extension) 
    -- When an error occurs in PSWS while a cmdlet is running, more detailed 
       error messages are returned to the caller. In addition, error codes 
       follow Windows Azure REST API error code guidelines 
    -- An endpoint can now define the API version, as well as enforce the usage 
       of a specific API version. Whenever version mismatches occur between client 
       and server, errors are displayed to both the client and the server. 
    -- Management of the dispatch schema has been simplified by automatically 
       generating values for any missing fields in the schema. Generation occurs, 
       as a helpful starting point, even if the dispatch schema does not exist. 
    -- Type handling in PSWS has been improved to support types that use a 
       different constructor than the default constructor, by behaving similarly 
       to the PSTypeConverter in Windows PowerShell. This lets you use complex 
       types with PSWS. 
    -- PSWS now allows expanding an associated instance while running a query. 
    -- For larger binary contents (such as images, audio, or video), the 
       transfer cost is significant, and it is better to transfer binary data 
       without encoding. PSWS uses named resource streams for transferring without 
       encoding. The named resource stream is a property of an entity of the 
       Edm.Stream type. Each named resource stream has a separate URI for GET or 
       UPDATE operations. 
    -- OData actions now provide a mechanism for invoking non-CRUD (Create, Read, 
       Update, and Delete) methods on a resource. You can invoke an action by 
       sending an HTTP POST request to the URI that is defined for the action. 
       The parameters for the action are defined in the body of the POST request. 
    -- To be consistent with Azure guidelines, all URLs should be simplified. A 
       change included in Key As Segment allows single keys to be represented as 
       segments. Note that references that use multiple key values require comma- 
       separated values in parenthetical notation, as before. 
    -- Before this release of PSWS, the only way to perform Create, Update, or 
       Delete operations was to invoke Post, Put, or Delete on a top-level resource. 
       New in this release of PSWS, "Contained Resource" operations let users  
       achieve the same results while reaching the same resource less directly, 
       approaching as if these resources were contained. 
    Windows PowerShell Web Access has added the following new features for 
    Windows Server 2012 R2. 
    -- You can disconnect from and reconnect to existing sessions in the web- 
       based Windows PowerShell Web Access console. A Save button in the web- 
       based console lets you disconnect from a session without deleting it, 
       and reconnect to the session another time. 
    -- Default parameters can be displayed on the sign-in page. To display 
       default parameters, configure values for all of the settings displayed 
       in the Optional Connection Settings area of the sign-in page in a file 
       named web.config. You can use the web.config file to configure all 
       optional connection settings except for a second or alternate set of 
    -- In Windows Server 2012 R2, you can remotely manage authorization rules 
       for Windows PowerShell Web Access. The Add-PswaAuthorizationRule and 
       Test-PswaAuthorizationRule cmdlets now include a Credential parameter 
       that enables administrators to manage authorization rules from a 
       remote computer, or in a Windows PowerShell Web Access session. 
    -- You can now have multiple Windows PowerShell Web Access sessions in a 
       single browser session, by using a new browser tab for each session. 
       You no longer need to open a new browser session to connect to a new 
       session in the web-based Windows PowerShell console. 


    The following are some of the bug fixes that are part of 
    Windows PowerShell 4.0. 
    -- Get-Counter can now return counters that contain an apostrophe 
       character in French editions of Windows. 
    -- You can now view the GetType method on deserialized objects. 
    -- #Requires statements now let users require that sessions be run with 
       elevated user rights (run as Administrator). 
    -- The Import-Csv cmdlet now ignores blank lines. 
    -- A problem where Windows PowerShell ISE uses too much memory when 
       you are running an Invoke-WebRequest command has been fixed. 
    -- Get-Module now displays module versions in a Version column. 
    -- Remove-Item –Recurse now removes items from subfolders as expected. 
    -- A UserName property has been added to Get-Process output objects. 
    -- The Invoke-RestMethod cmdlet now returns all available results. 
    -- Add-Member now takes effect on hashtables, even if the hashtables 
       have not yet been accessed. 
    -- Select-Object –Expand no longer fails or generates an exception 
       if the value of the property is null or empty. 
    -- Get-Process can now be used in a pipeline with other commands that 
       get the ComputerName property from objects. 
    -- ConvertTo-Json and ConvertFrom-Json can now accept terms within 
       double quotes, and its error messages are now localizable. 
    -- Get-Job now returns any completed scheduled jobs, even in new 
    -- Issues with mounting and unmounting VHDs by using the FileSystem 
       provider in Windows PowerShell have been fixed. Windows PowerShell 
       is now able to detect new drives when they are mounted in the same 
    -- You no longer need to explicitly load ScheduledJob or Workflow modules 
       to work with their job types. 
    -- Performance improvements have been made to the process of importing  
       workflows that define nested workflows; this process is now faster. 
    For more information about Windows PowerShell 4.0, visit the following web 
    -- Windows PowerShell website 
    -- Windows PowerShell Team Blog: 
    -- Windows PowerShell Web Access 




    What's New in Windows PowerShell 4.0