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    Describes the Windows PowerShell Community Extensions (PSCX) module and  
    how to use the contained cmdlets and functions. 


    PowerShell Community Extensions is a PowerShell module that provides a 
    number of widely useful cmdlets.  PSCX is not affiliated with Microsoft  
    or the Windows PowerShell team at Microsoft.  We are a few (at the moment) 
    passionate PowerShell users who wanted more cmdlets than Microsoft was  
    able to deliver in v1 and v2.  So we have taken it upon ourselves to 
    create some of those cmdlets and make them available to the community. 


    PSCX 3.2 is compiled against .NET 4.0 and consequently works only in  
    Windows PowerShell 3.0 and above. If you need Windows PowerShell 2.0  
    support, download PSCX 2.1.  If you need Windows PowerShell 1.0 support,  
    download PSCX 1.2. 


    Previous versions of PSCX used global variables to store preference  
    information and variables created by PSCX functions.  Those have been  
    moved to the PSCX settings provider.  PSCX will no longer create any  
    variables in your global variable scope.  All PSCX preference settings  
    are now specified using the Pscx.UserPreferencs.ps1 file.  The file is  
    located in the root of the PSCX module folder.  Its default values  
    indicate the defaults used if no preference file is specified during  
    import of the PSCX module.  If you want to change any of the defaults,  
    then copy this file to your home dir, edit it and then import PSCX using  
    the -ArgumentList to specify the path to your updated  
    Pscx.UserPreferences.ps1 file e.g.: 
    Import-Module Pscx -arg ~\Pscx.UserPreferences.ps1 
    The preference variables and default values are: 
    ShowModuleLoadDetails = $false # Display module load details during  
                                   # Import-Module. 
    CD_GetChildItem = $false       # Display the contents of new provider  
                                   # location after using cd (Set-LocationEx). 
                                   # Mutually exclusive with  
                                   # CD_EchoNewLocation. 
    CD_EchoNewLocation = $true     # Display new provider location after using  
                                   # cd (Set-LocationEx). 
                                   # Mutually exclusive with CD_GetChildItem. 
    TextEditor = 'Notepad.exe'     # Default text editor used by the Edit-File 
                                   # function. 
    PromptTheme = 'Modern'         # Prompt string and window title updates.   
                                   # To enable, first set the ModulesToImport  
                                   # setting for Prompt below to $true. 
                                   # Then set this value to one of: 'Modern',  
                                   # 'WinXP' or 'Jachym'. 
    PageHelpUsingLess = $true      # Pscx replaces PowerShell's More function. 
                                   # When this setting is set to $true,  
                                   # less.exe is used to page items piped to  
                                   # the More function. Less.exe is powerful  
                                   # paging app that allows advanced  
                                   # navigation and search. Press 'h' to  
                                   # access help inside less.exe and 'q' to  
                                   # exit less.exe. Set this setting to $false 
                                   # to use more.com for paging. 
    SmtpFrom = $null               # These settings are used by the PSCX  
                                   # Send-SmtpMail cmdlet. 
    SmtpHost = $null               # Specify a default SMTP server. 
    SmtpPort = $null               # Specify a default port number.  If not  
                                   # specified port 25 is used. 
    FileSizeInUnits = $false       # Pscx can prepend format data for the  
                                   # display of file information. If this  
                                   # value is set to $true, file sizes are  
                                   # displayed in using KB,MG,GB and TB units. 
    EditFileBackingFileThreshold = 84000 
                                   # Edit-File will switch from an in-memory 
                                   # buffer to a temp file when editing a file 
                                   # that is larger than this value.  This 
                                   # setting does not apply when the  
                                   # SingleString parameter is used.   


    To see what cmdlets are provided by PSCX, execute the command: 
    Get-Command -Module Pscx* -CommandType Cmdlet 
    The current PSCX cmdlets are listed below: 
        Search for objects in the Active Directory/Global Catalog.  
        Execute a SQL query against an ADO.NET datasource.  
        Create an ADO connection to any database supported by .NET on the current  
        machine. You can enumerate available ADO.NET Data Providers with the  
        Get-AdoDataProvider Cmdlet.Data connections to supported providers are  
        constructed using provider-agnostic common parameters like Server,  
        Username, Password etc.  
        List all registered ADO.NET Data Providers on the current machine.  
        Tests for the existence of the specified alternate data stream from an  
        NTFS file.  
        Expands a compressed archive file, or ArchiveEntry object, to its  
        constituent file(s).  
        Enumerates compressed archives such as 7z or rar, emitting ArchiveEntry  
        objects representing records in the archive.Read-Archive is used to list  
        the contents of a compressed archive containing one or more compressed  
        file(s). The format of the file being read can be overriden with the  
        Format parameter, for example to enumerate the contents of a  
        self-extracting archive (EXE).Read-Archive is useful if you wish to  
        perform filtering using standard pipeline Where-Object and/or  
        ForEach-Object cmdlets before piping ArchiveEntry objects to  
        Tests whether or not the specified file is a .NET assembly.  
        Converts base64 encoded string to byte array.  
        Converts byte array or specified file contents to base64 string. By  
        default, this cmdlet inserts line breaks every 76 characters and outputs  
        the result in a single string. For very large files, you may run into  
        OutOfMemoryExceptions. In this case, use the -Stream parameter which will  
        generate multiple string outputs that, combined together, result in the  
        equivalent base 64 text.  
        Exports a bitmap object to a specified file format.  
        Loads bitmap files.  
        Sets the size of the specified bitmap.  
        Turns numbers into nicely formatted byte count, using the highest  
        possible unit.  
        Create BZIP2 format archive files from pipline or parameter input.  
        Gets data from the clipboard.  
        Formats text via Out-String before placing in clipboard. Can also place  
        string in clipboard as a file.  
        Puts the specified object into the system clipboard.  
        Writes objects to the clipboard using their string representation,  
        bypassing the default PowerShell formatting.  
        Gets a list of authorized DHCP servers.  
        Gets all domain controllers at the specified scope.  
        Gets disk usage information on the system's disk drives.  
        Lists the environment blocks stored on the environment block stack.  
        Pops the environment block and restores the state of all environment  
        variables to the values stored in the environment block.  
        Stores the state of all environment variables into an environment block  
        and pushes that onto the environment block stack.  
        The Edit-File cmdlet modifies the specified files using a search pattern  
        and replacement text. The search pattern is specified by the Pattern  
        parameter and can be either "simple match" text or a regular expression.  
        The replacement text is specified by the Replacement parameter. The  
        Edit-File cmdlet can also be used to edit files interactively. By  
        default, notepad.exe is used to interactively edit the specified file.  
        You can specify an alternate interactive text editor using  
        $Pscx:Preferences['TextEditor] = 'notepad2.exe'. By default the regex is  
        applied to the file line by line. You can use the SingleString parameter  
        to load the entire file into memory as a single string. With  
        SingleString, the regex is applied to the entire file at once. This  
        enables you to specify a regular expression such as  
        '(?s)(<PostBuildEvent>).*?(</PostBuildEvent>)' that spans multiple lines.  
        The regular expression mode modifier '(?s)' enables Singleline mode which  
        causes the '.' metacharacter to match every character including newline  
        characters. One consequence of processing the file using the SingleString  
        parameter is that your regex may have to handle carriage return (\r)  
        characters. The regex metacharacter $ matches only newline (\n) and NOT  
        carriage return (\r) characters. You need to be aware of this when using  
        the metacharacter $ in Multiline mode to replace the entire contents of a  
        line. If you're not careful you can eliminate \r from the newline  
        sequence. To avoid this, use an end of line regex positve look-ahead  
        pattern like '(?=\r$)'.  
        This implentation efficiently tails the cotents of a file by reading  
        lines from the end rather then processing the entire file. This behavior  
        is crucial for efficiently tailing large log files and large log files  
        over a network. You can also specify the Wait parameter to have the  
        cmdlet wait and display new content as it is written to the file. Use  
        Ctrl+C to break out of the wait loop. Note that if an encoding is not  
        specified, the cmdlet will attempt to auto-detect the encoding by reading  
        the first character from the file. If no character haven't been written  
        to the file yet, the cmdlet will default to using Unicode encoding. You  
        can override this behavior by explicitly specifying the encoding via the  
        Encoding parameter.  
        Sets a file or folder's created and last accessed/write times.  
        Attempts to get the FileVersionInfo object for the specified path.  
        Usually only executable files include file version information.  
        Returns the hWnd or handle of the window in the foreground on the current  
        desktop. See also Set-ForegroundWindow.  
        Given an hWnd or window handle, brings that window to the foreground.  
        Useful for restoring a window to uppermost after an application which  
        seizes the foreground is invoked. See also Get-ForegroundWindow  
        Create GNU ZIP (GZIP) format files from pipeline or parameter input.  
        Creates filesystem hard links. The hardlink and the target must reside on  
        the same NTFS volume.  
        Gets the hash value for the specified file or byte array via the  
        pipeline. The default hash algorithm is MD5, although you can specify  
        other algorithms using the -Algorithm parameter (MD5, SHA1, SHA256,  
        SHA384, SHA512 and RIPEMD160). This cmdlet emits a HashInfo object that  
        has properties for Path, Algorithm, HashString and Hash.  
        The Format-Hex command displays the contents of the specified files in  
        hex format. This cmdlet will also accept pipeline input in the form of a  
        byte stream. The output can be controlled via various parameters to  
        indicate the number of columns that should be displayed or alternatively  
        you can specify the width of the output. The header, address and ASCII  
        portions of the display can also be turned off individually. The offset  
        and count can also be specified via parameters to control where in the  
        input to start displaying and how much to display.  
        Sends ICMP echo requests to network hosts.  
        Resolves host names to IP addresses.  
        Gets an HTTP resource or optionally the headers associated with the  
        Creates NTFS directory junctions.  
        Converts the line endings in the specified file to Mac OS9 and earlier  
        style line endings "\r". You can convert a single file to a new file  
        name. Or you can convert multiple files and specify a destination  
        directory. By default, this cmdlet will overwrite existing files unless  
        you specify -NoClobber. If you want to force the overwrite of read only  
        files use the -Force option.  
        Returns all mount points defined for a specific root path.  
        Removes a mount point, dismounting the current media if any. If used  
        against the root of a fixed drive, removes the drive letter assignment.  
        Purges all messages from a queue  
        Returns a list of all queues matching the filter parameters  
        Creates a new queue object with the defined properties  
        Receives the first message available in the queue. This call is  
        synchronous, and blocks the current thread of execution and waits until  
        either a message is available in the queue, or the time-out expires.  
        Wraps an object in a Message, and places it onto the defined queue.  
        Skips the specified number of objects at the beginning of a sequence  
        and/or the end of a sequence.  
        Get information on optical drive capabilities on the local machine.  
        Adds the specified paths to the end of the named, path-oriented  
        environment variable by taking the paths specified by the Value parameter  
        and concatenating them into a semi-colon separated string. The paths can  
        be prepended to the environment variable by using the -Prepend switch  
        Gets the specified path-oriented environment variable and outputs an  
        array of strings. One string for each path. The environment variable  
        string is split a semi-colon and you can option specify that empty paths  
        be removed and unnecessary quotes be removed from each path.  
        Sets the specified path-oriented environment variable by taking the paths  
        specified by the Value parameter and concatenating them into a semi-colon  
        separated string.  
        The PE header for Windows executables includes various useful bits of  
        information including the image base address, subsystem, linker version,  
        Lists privileges held by the session and their current status.  
        Adjusts privileges associated with a user (identity).  
        Generates a XML file containing all documentation data.  
        Gets NTFS reparse point data.  
        Removes NTFS reparse junctions and symbolic links.  
        Determines whether a PowerShell script has any syntax errors using the  
        PowerShell script tokenizer.  
        Creates shell shortcuts.  
        Gets the short, 8.3 name for the given path. This cmdlet emits a  
        ShortPathInfo object that contains a ShortPath property as well as a Path  
        property which contains the original long path.  
        Sends email via specified SMTP server to specified recipients. This  
        cmdlet checks for existence of several preference that if set can make  
        this cmdlet much easier to use. Those preference variables are: *  
        $PscxSmtpHostPreference="smtp.example.net" * $PscxSmtpPortPreference=587  
        * $PscxSmtpFromPreference="john_doe@example.net"  
        Joins an array of strings into a single string.  
        Splits a single string into an array of strings.  
        Creates filesystem symbolic links. Requires Microsoft Windows Vista or  
        Create Tape Archive (TAR) format files from pipeline or parameter input.  
        Disconnects a specific remote desktop session on a system running  
        Terminal Services/Remote Desktop  
        Gets information on terminal services sessions.  
        Logs off a specific remote desktop session on a system running Terminal  
        Services/Remote Desktop  
        Get-TypeName displays the typename of the input object. Normally you  
        would use Get-Member to determine this but if you are only interested in  
        the type name this filter produces much less output. Also, since  
        Get-Member accumulates multiple instances of the same type into a single  
        output record for that type, you don't get any sense of how many objects  
        of that type are traversing the pipeline. With Get-TypeName, you will see  
        the type name of *every* object passed into it. NOTE: If you specify any  
        arguments then all pipeline input is ignored. This is due to the fact  
        that PowerShell executes the Process function even if there isn't any  
        input so it is impossible to distinguish between $null pipeline input and  
        no pipeline input. NOTE: the type name is displayed directly to the host  
        so that it doesn't interfere with pipeline operations. If you want the  
        original object to pass thru, use the PassThru parameter.  
        Converts the line endings in the specified file to Unix line endings  
        "\n". You can convert a single file to a new file name. Or you can  
        convert multiple files and specify a destination directory. By default,  
        this cmdlet will overwrite existing files unless you specify -NoClobber.  
        If you want to force the overwrite of read only files use the -Force  
        Gets the operating system's uptime and last bootup time.  
        Tests whether or not a user (current user by default) is a member of the  
        specified group name. This can be used to test whether a user is admin or  
        elevated to admin.  
        Modifies the label shown in Windows Explorer for a particular disk  
        Converts the line endings in the specified file to Windows line endings  
        "\r\n". You can convert a single file to a new file name. Or you can  
        convert multiple files and specify a destination directory. By default,  
        this cmdlet will overwrite existing files unless you specify -NoClobber.  
        If you want to force the overwrite of read only files use the -Force  
        Performs XSLT transforms on the specified XML file or XmlDocument. Use  
        the EnableScript parameter to enable script embedded in the XSLT file.  
        Pretty print for XML files and XmlDocument objects.  
        Tests for well formedness and optionally validates against XML Schema. It  
        doesn't handle specifying the targetNamespace. To see validation error  
        messages, specify the -Verbose flag.  
        Create ZIP format archive files from pipline or parameter input.  


        PSCX Provider: Provides access to the .NET Global Assembly Cache and the  
        assemblies it contains. The assemblies are exposed as AssemblyName  
        PSCX Provider: Provides access to LDAP servers like Active Directory or  
        AD Lightweight Directory Services.  
        PSCX Provider: Provides access to the Internet Explorer 7 RSS feed store.  


    To see what functions are provided by PSCX, execute the command: 
    Get-Command -Module Pscx* -CommandType Function 
    The current PSCX functions are listed below: 
        Calculates the sizes of the specified directory and adds that size as a  
        "Length" NoteProperty to the input DirectoryInfo object.  
        Adds the file or directory's short path as a "ShortPath" NoteProperty to  
        each input object.  
        Dismounts a Virtual Hard Drive (VHD) file.  
    Edit-HostProfile (ehp) 
        Opens the current user's profile for the current host in a text editor.  
    Edit-Profile (ep) 
        Opens the current user's "all hosts" profile in a text editor.  
        Creates the registry entries required to create Windows Explorer context  
        menu "Open PowerShell Here" for both Directories and Drives  
        Gets the execution time for the specified Id of a command in the current  
        session history.  
        Displays information about Windows PowerShell commands and concepts.  
    Get-Parameter (gpar) 
        Enumerates the parameters of one or more commands.  
        Generate CSS header for HTML "screen shot" of the host buffer.  
        Functions to generate HTML "screen shot" of the host buffer.  
        Gets the possible alternate views for the specified object.  
        Imports environment variables for the specified version of Visual Studio.  
        Invokes the specified batch file and retains any environment variable  
        changes it makes.  
    Invoke-Elevated (su) 
        Runs the specified command in an elevated context.  
    Invoke-GC (igc) 
        Invokes the .NET garbage collector to clean up garbage objects.  
    Invoke-Method (call) 
        Function to call a single method on an incoming stream of piped objects.  
    Invoke-NullCoalescing (??) 
        Similar to the C# ?? operator e.g. name = value ?? String.Empty  
    Invoke-Ternary (?:) 
        Similar to the C# ? : operator e.g. name = (value != null) ? String.Empty  
        : value  
        Less provides better paging of output from cmdlets.  
        Mounts a Virtual Hard Drive (VHD) file.  
        Outputs text as spoken words.  
    QuoteList (ql) 
        Convenience function for creating an array of strings without requiring  
        quotes or commas.  
    QuoteString (qs) 
        Creates a string from each parameter by concatenating each item using  
        $OFS as the separator.  
    Resolve-ErrorRecord (rver) 
        Resolves the PowerShell error code to a textual description of the error.  
    Resolve-HResult (rvhr) 
        Resolves the hresult error code to a textual description of the error.  
    Resolve-WindowsError (rvwer) 
        Resolves a Windows error number a textual description of the error.  
    Set-LocationEx (cd) 
        CD function that tracks location history allowing easy navigation to  
        previous locations.  
    Set-ReadOnly (sro) 
        Sets a file's read only status to true making it read only.  
    Set-Writable (swr) 
        Sets a file's read only status to false making it writable.  
        Shows the specified path as a tree.  
        Starts a new Windows PowerShell process.  
        Stops a process on a remote machine.  


    To see what aliases get created by PSCX, execute the command: 
    Get-Command -Module Pscx* -CommandType Alias 
    The current PSCX defined aliases are listed below: 
    ?:            : alias for Invoke-Ternary function 
    ??            : alias for Invoke-NullCoalescing function 
    call          : alias for Invoke-Method function 
    cvxml         : alias for Convert-Xml cmdlet 
    e             : alias for Edit-File cmdlet 
    ehp           : alias for Edit-HostProfile function 
    ep            : alias for Edit-Profile function 
    fhex          : alias for Format-Hex cmdlet 
    fxml          : alias for Format-Xml cmdlet 
    gcb           : alias for Get-Clipboard cmdlet 
    gpar          : alias for Get-Parameter function 
    gtn           : alias for Get-TypeName cmdlet 
    igc           : alias for Invoke-GC function 
    ln            : alias for New-HardLink cmdlet 
    lorem         : alias for Get-LoremIpsum cmdlet 
    nho           : alias for New-HashObject filter 
    ocb           : alias for Out-Clipboard cmdlet 
    ql            : alias for QuoteList function 
    qs            : alias for QuoteString function 
    Resize-Bitmap : alias for Set-BitmapSize cmdlet 
    rver          : alias for Resolve-ErrorRecord function 
    rvhr          : alias for Resolve-HResult function 
    rvwer         : alias for Resolve-WindowsError function 
    skip          : alias for Skip-Object cmdlet 
    sro           : alias for Set-ReadOnly function 
    su            : alias for Invoke-Elevated function 
    swr           : alias for Set-Writable function 
    tail          : alias for Get-FileTail cmdlet 
    touch         : alias for Set-FileTime cmdlet 


        Less-394 is a paging utility that PSCX installs. PSCX further provides 
        a replacement "help" function that can uses the installed less.exe to  
        page help output. If you use either the "man" alias (an alias to help)  
        or the help function, the output will be paged using the PSCX "less" 
        function which uses less.exe. By default, PSCX's "less" function will  
        use Less.exe to page its input.  If you want to temporarily avoid  
        using Less for paging when viewing help topics, you can use Get-Help  
        directly e.g.: 
        PS> Get-Help Get-PSDrive -Full 
        The primary commands you need to know in order to use less.exe are: 
        Press 'q' to exit less.exe.  Press '/<some_term>[enter] to search the 
        help topic for a specific term.  Press 'h' to get more help on how to  
        use less.exe. 
        If you want to permanently suppress the usage of Less and revert back 
        to PowerShell's default pager (more.com) set the 'PageHelpUsingLess'  
        preference variable to $false in your Pscx.UserPreferences.ps1 file. 
        See the PREFERENCES VARIABLES section above for more information on 
        customing PSCX. 
        Using Less to browse help topics is significantly nicer than the  
        default paging in PowerShell. PSCX does not however redefine  
        PowerShell's "more" function to use Less because the way PowerShell  
        interops with legacy applications causes all output to be rendered to  
        text before it is sent to a legacy application. That makes commands  
        like the following take too much time to generate any output: 
        PS> gci $env:windir -rec | less 
        This is a simple legacy console application that can be very useful  
        when you are troubleshooting the invocation of a legacy application 
        with complex parameters.  The typical problem is that you may think  
        the parameters are being passed literally to the legacy application  
        when in fact PowerShell is parsing the parameters via its standard 
        parameter parsing and then passing the result to the legacy  
        application e.g.: 
        PS> echoargs a /b -c -d:user /e:foo.cs;405 
        Arg 0 is <a> 
        Arg 1 is </b> 
        Arg 2 is <-c> 
        Arg 3 is <-d:user> 
        Arg 4 is </e:foo.cs> 
        Command line: 
        "C:\Program Files (x86)\PowerShell Community Extensions\Pscx3\Pscx\ 
        Apps\EchoArgs.exe"  a /b -c -d:user /e:foo.cs 
        Notice that ';' is the statement separator in PowerShell so the '405'  
        part of the parameter '/e:foo.cs;405' is not even considered a  
        parameter to the legacy application.  These sort of problems are  
        typically solved by quoting the arguments to legacy applications e.g.: 
        5> echoargs a /b -c -d:user '/e:foo.cs;405' 
        Arg 0 is <a> 
        Arg 1 is </b> 
        Arg 2 is <-c> 
        Arg 3 is <-d:user> 
        Arg 4 is </e:foo.cs;405> 
        Command line: 
        "C:\Program Files (x86)\PowerShell Community Extensions\Pscx3\Pscx\ 
        Apps\EchoArgs.exe"  a /b -c -d:user /e:foo.cs;405 


    If you want to add an "Open PowerShell Prompt" context menu item to  
    Windows Explorer for folders and drives, execute: 
    PS> Enable-OpenPowerShellHere 
    Please submit any feedback, including defects and enhancement requests,  
    to either the discussions forums at: 
    or via the Issue Tracker at: 
    We are also interested in suggestions you may have for cmdlets.  Over 
    time, we hope to be able to add some custom providers but that greatly 
    depends on recruiting some more developers for the PSCX project. 


    If you are: 
    A) A software developer with experience programming in C#  
    B) Passionate about Windows PowerShell  
    C) Interested in contributing your coding talents to the project, please 
       drop me an email at: 


    This is a list of people and/or groups who have directly or indirectly 
    helped by offering significant suggestions, code, certs or linkable  
    binaries without which PSCX would be a lesser product. In alphabetical  
    DigiCert for donating code signing certificates. 
    Eugene Sichkar / 7z Wrapper 
    Igor Pavlov / 7-Zip 
    Mike Krueger/John Reilly #ZipLib 
    Richard Deeming / Trinet.Core.IO.Ntfs 
    SevenZipSharp Team 
    The nUnit Team 
    Wintellect for PowerCollections.dll 


For more information, most of the cmdlets have help associated with
them e.g.:

PS> help Get-Clipboard

The definitive information on a cmdlet's parameters can be obtained
by executing:

PS> Get-Command Get-Clipboard -syntax

or more tersely:

PS> gcm get-clipboard -syn